Sunday, July 3, 2011

Production of commercial catfish

Production of commercial catfish

Production Process

The normal production cycle for channel catfish farming starts with the parent fish breeding. Conservation starts in the spring when water temperatures rose to above 70 º F. At that time, the parent fish was held in the pool at random pairs and fertilized eggs collected from breeding containers and transferred to the hatchery a. Eggs hatch after 5 to 8 days of incubation and fry reared in the hatchery for an additional 4-10 days. Fry then transferred to a children's pool that is fed daily through the summer, and harvested in the autumn or winter as fingerlings. Fingerlings then filled into foodfish growout ponds, fed every day, and harvested when they reach 1-2 pounds. Approximately 18-36 months are needed to produce food-size channel catfish eggs. Foodfish harvested year around to meet the processing needs, so the pool in a given field usually consists of fish in various stages of growout during the year.

Maintain master

Channel catfish are easy to maintain a holding of shares in the culture ponds, and reproductive efficiency is quite good without any special manipulation of environmental conditions or the need for hormone treatment. Although channel catfish may be due in two years, it must be at least 3 years and weighing at least 3 pounds to breeding reliable. Fish 4-6 years, weighing between 4 and 8 pounds is considered the prime spawners. Older fish produce fewer eggs per body weight and larger fish may have difficulty entering the former is commonly used as nesting sites.

Master maintained at relatively low standing crop (less than 2000 pounds / acre) to provide a good environment and reduce reproductive suppression by the congestion.The parent fish are seined from the pool and checked every year or two. Large fish, which can spawners poor, eliminated and replaced by smaller, younger fish master.Regular checks are also holding fish provide an opportunity to adjust the sex ratio in the parent population.

Breeding activities will commence in the spring when water temperatures are consistently around 75 º F. Preservation occurred within a few hours as a layer of adhesive placed several eggs in the nest container. Women between 4 and 8 pounds is usually located between 3,000 and 4,000 eggs per pound of body weight. Reproductive success (the percentage of breeding females) between 30 to 80 percent annually, and depends mainly on the condition and age of women holding fish and water temperature during the breeding season.

Former nesting checked every 2 or 3 days for the presence of eggs. The eggs are taken from the holding ponds are placed in protective containers, air and transported to the hatchery.

Hatchery Phase

Hatching is used to produce fish fry is a simple facility that uses the flow through the tank holds about 90-100 gallons of water for egg incubation and preservation of seeds. The most important factor for successful hatching is expected to supply high quality water.

Egg hatching tanks are equipped with a series of pedal distance along the tank to allow the wire mesh basket to fit between them. One or two egg masses placed in the basket each and paddle slowly rotate through the water to provide water circulation and aeration. The incubation period is 5-8 days vary depending on water temperature.

At the hatchery, fish (called sac-fry at the moment) falls or swim through a wire mesh basket and a school in a tight group. Sac-fry released into the bucket and transferred to a fry rearing tank. Aeration in tanks provided by the instigator of fish surface or by air pumped through airstones.

At first, the sac-fry do not eat because they get food from the yolk sac attached. Over 3-5 days after hatching they absorb the yolk sac and turned black. At that time the fish (now called the swim-up fry) swim to the surface to feed. Swim-up fry should be fed 6-12 times a day for a good life and growth. Fry fed with nutritious food for up to 2 to 7 days before being transferred to ponds to breed.

Fingerling production

Cultural practices fingerling production is fairly uniform across the industry, especially when compared with a range of strategies used for food production to grow big fish. Fry grow faster when the stocks at lower densities, but more space is needed to grow fingerlings at lower densities. Rates stocks Thus, a compromise between the benefits of producing large fingerlings for growout and economic foodfish produce more small fingerlings in the room less. Fish fed manufactured feed and grow to fingerling size (3 to 8 inches long) over a period of 5-10 months. Fish either allowed to continue to expand the pool of children or the harvested and transferred to other ponds for growout to fish Stocker size of 0.1 to 0, 25 pounds or for food fish size of 1.2 to 2.5 pounds.

It is important to nourish children's pool so that they contain a lot of natural foods to promote growth to fish large enough to move to the food produced. A finely ground feed should be offered once or twice a day to train fish to accept bribes. As the fish grows, the size of food particles is increased. A month or so after the stock, fish (now called fingerlings) were fed once or twice daily to satiation, using a small floating pellet with 32-35 percent crude protein.

Because fingerling population is very vulnerable to infectious diseases, disease management takes on added importance in this stage production. Survival of catfish fry to fingerlings is very different from pool to pool depending on the initial conditions of the children's pool, losses to predators, birds, and the incidence of infectious diseases. Life distribution of stocks fingerling harvest the seeds for more than 60 percent in all the ponds on the farm is considered very good.

Production Foodfish

Cultural practices used for the production foodfish vary from farm to farm, and the process of growing a food-sized catfish can take a lot of the fingerling phase. Most of the fish stock farmers once the gap between the phases of children and foodfish growout phase. In this scheme, the fingerlings are harvested and restocked into the pool at about foodfish one-tenth to one-twentieth the density of a children's pool because the fish will be 10-20 times more weight when harvested as foodfish. The scheme is a measure of production is not as easy as it appears because there are many options for managing a pool foodfish.

Another approach to producing food-sized fish is to divide the time between phase two children and growout foodfish. The first section produces a medium fish called "Stocker". The second part is made when the stockers are harvested and restocked for growout size of the food. In this scheme, small fingerlings (2 to 3 inches) is a stock of about 40.000 60.000 fish / acre and planted more than one season to produce stockers weighing 0.1 to more than 0.3 pounds. The stockers then harvested and transferred to the growout ponds foodfish. As a step in the scheme described above, there are several options for growout foodfish using Stocker size fish.

The three basic production variables in the growout foodfish is a system of crop, stock rates, and size of fingerlings to stock. Farmers use various combinations of these variables and it is impossible to describe a special scheme for the management of food-sized channel catfish. Farmers have been developed and used in various production schemes based on experience, personal preference, and the productivity and profitability is seen.

Cropping system refers to the stock tables, restocking harvest. In the single-group, the goal is to have only one class of fish at any given time. Fingerlings are met, grew to the size of the desired plants, and fish all harvested before the pond is restocked with new fingerlings to start the next cycle of crops. In multi-group system, several different classes of fish present after the first year of production. Initially, a single cohort of fingerlings required. Individuals who are selected to grow faster harvested ("leading") using a large seine net, followed by the addition of ("under the stock") of fingerlings to replace the fish removed, including any loss incurred during the growout. The process of selective harvesting and understocking continue for years without draining the pool.

Whether the pool operates as a group or range of systems, the stock is best defined as the maximum fish density (number per acre) for the period of production. In trading, the stock became more goal accurate less than variable successful people because it is impossible to know the actual inventory of commercial fish in the large pool used for several years without draining. There is no agreement about the best stock rates for commercial production and the rates used in various industries from less than 500 fish / acre to more than 10,000 fish / acre. One explanation for the wide range of stocking rates used by fish farmers is that the goal of production, facilities, and resources vary from farm to farm.

Fingerling size for a stock is a critical factor in the production foodfish, but very little systematic research has been conducted to determine the relationship between fingerling size in stocks and economic returns. Large Fingerlings will reach foodfish faster than small fingerlings, but a large fingerlings are expensive because they require more time and space to produce. In addition, large fingerlings can be difficult to obtain because most manufacturers prefer fried fingerling stock at high densities and move foodfish fingerlings to ponds as soon as possible to avoid the risk of loss to diseases and wild birds. The best size for fingerling stock is a compromise that depends on the crops, fish stocks and the availability of fingerling density.

Wednesday, June 22, 2011


Welcome to the blog CULTURE IKAN.Disini I simply want to fill in information related to fish farming information that has the potential to produce more people who are interested in ini. I also welcome your participation in contributing any articles or information related to fish farming in Malaysia.

Types of Kerapu

Scientific Name: Epinephelus lanceolatus
Common name: Giant grouper (juvenile)
Local Name: Kertang (children)
Contribution: Tembaring

Scientific Name: Epinephelus lanceolatus
Common name: Giant grouper
Local Name: Kertang
Contribution: petestop

Scientific Name: Epinephelus malabaricus
Common name: Malabar grouper
Local Name: Grouper

Scientific Name: Epinephelus coioides
Common name: Orange-Spotted grouper
Local Name: Grouper pond

Scientific Name: Plectropomus maculatus
Common name: Spotted coralgrouper
Local Name: banana grouper, grouper sunuh

Scientific Name: Plectropomus pessuliferus
Common name: Roving coralgrouper
Local Name: banana grouper, grouper sunuh
Contribution: petestop

Scientific Name: Plectropomus leopardus
Common name: Leopard coralgrouper
Local Name: banana grouper, grouper sunuh

Scientific Name: Cephalopholis sonnerati
Common name: Tomato Hind
Local Name: Grouper embers
Contribution: ainst

Scientific Name: Epinephelus amblycephalus
Common name: Banded grouper
Local name: Grouper-killer?

Scientific Name: Epinephelus areolatus
Common name: Aerola grouper
Local Name: Grouper

Scientific Name: Epinephelus morrhua
Common name: Comet grouper
Local name: Grouper-sea

Scientific Name: Epinephelus retouti
Common name: Red-tipped grouper

Scientific Name: Epinephelus epistictus
Common name: local name: Dotted grouper
Local Name: Grouper glutinous

Scientific Name: Cromileptes altivelis
Common name: humpback grouper
Local Name: Grouper rats

Friday, March 19, 2010

Catfish family

Catfish is freshwater fish which many found in ASEAN countries, especially in Malaysia. In some place especially in Selangor, catfish cited as "semilang fish". To persons Perak, just alive semilang fish at sea.

Available catfish in most paddy field, for example in Pahang, in Paya Pahang Tua, Mambang, Ganchong and Paloh Hinai, Pekan. It also often found in Tasik Chini, Paya Bungor or Bera. River cat-fish also inhabit in little stream confluence such as Sungai Lepar in Paloh Hinai to to Jerantut and Kuala Lipis, apart from in Sungai Bera and Sungai Serting.

1. Wood Catfish
2. Flower Catfish
3. Eksotika Catfish
4. Catfish Catfish
5. Kati Eye 's Catfish
6. Russia Catfish
7. Africa Catfish
8. Rapids Catfish
9. Forest Catfish

Livestock fish

Catfish can be preserved in large pool or just in pool. It easy to breed by feed chicken residue, chicken fat and so on. Price one kilo catfish already cleaned fish only RM5.00 Semenyih at market.

In Javanese language and in Indonesia generally, catfish mentioned "fish lele".

For some place especially in Hilir Perak and Kampung Gajah, Perak, catfish uneaten or less eaten because belief 'ancient' catfish derived from tadpole, namely young frog.

If drowning people in Sungai Perak, body drift and have been decomposed the usually eaten by catfish. They found in that body a few catfish. May be because stories as such, catfish 'less favoured' in Hilir Perak and Kampung Gajah, Perak.

On the other hand in Semenyih, Selangor, catfish be special dish in family feast.

Catfish family
  1. Akysidae
  2. Amblycipitidae
  3. Amphiliidae
  4. Ariidae
  5. Aspredinidae
  6. Astroblepidae
  7. Auchenipteridae
  8. Bagridae
  9. Callichthyidae
  10. Cetopsidae
  11. Chacidae
  12. Clariidae
  13. Claroteidae
  14. Cranoglanididae
  15. Diplomystidae
  16. Doradidae
  17. Hypophthalmidae
  18. Ictaluridae
  19. Lacantuniidae
  20. Loricariidae
  21. Malapteruridae
  22. Mochokidae
  23. Nematogenyidae
  24. Pangasiidae
  25. Parakysidae
  26. Pimelodidae
  27. Plotosidae
  28. Schilbeidae
  29. Scoloplacidae
  30. Siluridae
  31. Sisoridae
  32. Trichomycteridae

Catfish Distribution

Catfish are primarily river residents (though
channel catfish also live in lakes and ponds) and are most prevalent in the major river systems of
southwestern and western Wisconsin. The channel catfish has a wider range and is more abundant in Wisconsin than the flathead. Channel cats are found as far north as the upper St. Croix River and in the St. Louis River, which flows into Lake Superior. Flatheads are at the northern-most reaches of their range in the lower St. Croix. Both species are found in the Mississippi, Wisconsin and Fox rivers and in Lake Winnebago. Channel catfish have also been taken from Green Bay and tributaries of Lake Michigan.

Habits and habitats
Catfish, especially channels, are more tolerant of turbid water than many game fish, with the
exception of bullheads and carp. While they tolerate turbidity, catfish prefer clear, slow-moving
water. During the day, both species seek out dark, deep pools, such as those below rock dams, wing dams or below the concrete aprons of larger dams. Pools with submerged logs, rocks or other debris offer prime habitat. These structures disrupt stream flows, creating swirling eddies that maintain the holes and give catfish some shelter from swift river currents.

A flathead, if undisturbed, will often return to the same snot each day to rest. Flatheads tend to have a home range (area within which they remain), rarely traveling more than five miles from their resting spot. Studies have shown that flatheads captured in one location and released in another part of the same river system will return to the spot where they were captured. Channel catfish, on the other hand, don't have strong homing tendencies. They make extensive upstream migrations in spring to spawn and then tend to move downstream throughout the year. After resting for most of the day, catfish move into shallows and muddy backwaters at night to
feed. Young catfish feed primarily on insects, insect larvae and small aquatic zooplankton. As they srow, thev also feed on snails,. crav- fish and small fish. channel catfish are primarily scavengers, moving along shore feeding on any type of vegetable or animal matter that floats by; but they are also swift swimmers, and larger channel cats may feed heavily on small forage fish. Flatheads feed almost exclusively on live fish. While they will pursue fish, flatheads are known to wait motionless with their mouths wide open for fish to come to them. When a prey fish swims by, the flathead lunges forward and swallows it. Channel cats feed heavily following rains when they search the turbid water with their barbels for food washed into the river. Neither species feeds in the winter, when they congregate in deep pools, settling in the muddy bottom and going into semihibernation.

By Paul Holtan

Catfish Identification

These bottom dwellers derive their common name, catfish, from the "whiskers" on their snouts, but they share other traits with earthbound felines. Catfish prefer to rest during the day and prowl at night. Like their curious namesakes, catfish seek out and explore secluded spots. And flathead catfish will engage each other in "cat" fights to rival any back alley tomcats. On the other hand, there are traits catfish don't share with the feline family. Channel catfish are anything but finicky, feeding on almost anything that floats by. Unlike sharp-eyed feline predators, catfish depend more on their well-developed senses of smell and touch to seek their dinner. Finally, some people might argue, a fury cat is a somewhat more appealing creature than the scaleless catfish.

That notion may run into some argument in communities along the Mississippi and lower Wisconsin rivers, where catfish are held in high regard. Catfish dinners are featured in many riverfront restaurants as well as at the dinner tables of many anglers. In some river towns, flathead catfish in particular are considered a delicacy, even earning the nickname "candy bar. "

The channel catfish and the flathead catfish are Wisconsin's largest members of the bullhead catfish family (Ictaluridae), which also includes the bullheads, the madtoms and the stonecat. The flathead is the granddaddy of Wisconsin catfish. It can be one fat cat, reaching weights of 30 to 40 or more pounds.

All members of the family are scaleless, having instead a thick, tough skin. Catfish are darkly
colored, reflecting the murky depths where they linger. Channel catfish have blue to olive backs,
whitish bellies and silvery sides mottled with distinctive black'spots of varying sizes - the only
species of this family to have such spots. The spots often disappear from older males, which are
sometimes erroneously identified as another relative, the blue catfish. Blue catfish are not found
as far north as Wisconsin. Flathead catfish have light brown to yellow sides (hence the common name yellow cat) that may have darker brown or black areas. The belly is yellow to cream white.
Channel catfish are smaller and have a more slender body than flatheads. Both species have
broad heads, but as its name implies, the flathead has the flattest and broadest. The two species can be easily distinguished by their caudal (tail) fins.

The channel cat has a deeply-forked tail while the flathead has a squared tail fin with only slight forks. Catfish have eight whiskers, called barbels (fleshy sensors capable of feeling and tasting). There is one barbel at each corner of the mouth; one adjacent to each nostril; and four protruding from the lower jaw. A common misconception is that barbels sting if they are touched. While this is not true, catfish have three sharp spines (rigid supports) - one in their dorsal (back) fin and one in each of the pectoral (side) fins - with venomous mucus glands that secrete a painful but not dangerous poison. Handle catfish with care to avoid these spines. The pelvic (belly) fins and the anal (bottom rear) fin are supported by rays (soft, flexible supports). Catfish have an adipose (fatty tissue) fin on their backs just in front of the tail. Another distinctive feature of the flathead is a protruding lower lip; the channel catfish's upper lip protrudes farther than its lower lip.